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Own a Top Level Domain (TLD)

A top level domain is the last extension of any website. For example in http://www.google.com/, .com is the top level domain. You can register your own top level domain (.yourname) and become an official registrar for all secondary level domains (SLD’s) under this tld. INAIC (http://www.inaic.com/) is the authority responsible for registration of such tld’s, called public tld’s. The unofficial public tld’s come under the category Internet Generation 2.

But there is a problem. General web users can not access this next generation internet. To understand why one can’t access internet 2, we have to dig deep into how web works. The official tld’s all around the world are controlled by ICANN which is the body authorized to regulate internet use all over the world. It’s head-quarters are located in US. Whenever a net surfer types a domain name into his web browser, browser sends the request to one of the ICANN’s DNS(Domain Name System) servers which contain the information about all official top level domains( e.g., .com). Lets say the user has typed http://www.google.com/ in the web browser. When the browser’s contact to ICANN’s DNS server is made, the DNS server address of secondary level domain (SLD) is obtained (i.e., google.com) by the browser. A website address can be understood somewhat like www.SLD.TLD. The web browser now contacts the DNS server of this SLD and this process continues (e.g., if it is something like http://www.mail.google.com/). So, the process of contacting different DNS servers in series continues unless the complete website address is resolved and its then, you are able to access a particular webpage.

The process of contacting various servers is complex and you must be wondering how a webpage loads so quickly if such a long process is involved in resolving a domain. Again, to understand how a website is resolved so quickly, we will have to understand how a DNS server works, but it would go beyond the context of this article. The working of DNS server will be explained in a future post. For now, we can concentrate only on TLD’s. What TLD’s are actually? They are just like simple extensions which are defined only on a particular server. Let’s say there is an unknown file with an extension that your computer doesn’t recognize. Obviously it will not be able to understand what to do with the file. But when you install a software that recognizes the extension, your computer is able to open the file. Internet is a network working on a client-server model. Suppose there is a small network of ten computers – one server and nine clients. An object defined on server will be accessible by clients and clients will be able to understand it because it is defined on the server. Similarly, all the official tld’s are defined on ICANN’s DNS servers and our computers which are like clients understand only those tld’s which are defined on ICANN’s servers.

Our computers, operating systems all come with a pre-made configuration to always contact only ICANN’s servers. For example whenever you type a web address in your browser, browser will contact ICANN’s DNS server. In order to access public tld’s your browser should contact public root’s DNS server because public tld’s are not defined on ICANN’s servers, they are defined in INAIC’s public root servers and for this you have to update your network settings. For information on how to update visit

Note: For Indian Readers-
Reliance Net Connect Users, need to upgrade dns settings in their connection software settings and Similarly other Plug to serve users.
Broadband users such as BSNL, MTNL, Airtel, update dns of their LAN as well as network connection.
If any problems in upgrading contact myviny@gmail.com

Once you upgrade you will be able to access unofficial tld’s such as .city, .world, .saab, .web etc. Few of the websites on public tld’s are http://www.web.city/, http://www.paris.city/, http://www.automobile.saab/, http://www.register.world/.


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